Many U.S. workers are sacrificing sleep for work hours, long commutes

 

Sleep In Says Top Sleep Scientist

A new study shows that paid work time is the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep and suggests that chronic sleep loss potentially could be prevented by strategies that make work start times more flexible.

Results show that work is the dominant activity exchanged for less sleep across practically all sociodemographic categories. Compared to normal sleepers, short sleepers who reported sleeping 6 hours or less worked 1.55 more hours on weekdays and 1.86 more hours on weekends or holidays, and they started working earlier in the morning and stopped working later at night. The highest odds of being a short sleeper were found among adults working multiple jobs, who were 61 percent more likely than others to report sleeping 6 hours or less on weekdays. Respondents who were unemployed, retired or absent from the labor force also obtained significantly more sleep and were less likely to be short sleepers.

“The evidence that time spent working was the most prominent sleep thief was overwhelming,” said lead author Dr. Mathias Basner, assistant professor of sleep and chronobiology in psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in Philadelphia.

Short sleepers also traveled more, started traveling earlier in the morning, and stopped later in the evening than normal sleepers. The travel pattern, with peaks at 7 a.m. and 5 p.m., strongly suggests that the majority of travel time is associated with commuting.

According to Basner, the results point to several possible solutions for workers’ lack of sleep.

“Potential intervention strategies to decrease the prevalence of chronic sleep loss in the population include greater flexibility in morning work and class start times, reducing the prevalence of multiple jobs, and shortening morning and evening commute times,” he said.

Results show that with every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Respondents slept an average of only 6 hours when starting work before or at 6 a.m. and 7.29 hours when starting work between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. Self-employed respondents with more flexible work times also obtained significantly more sleep than private sector employees and were 17 percent less likely to be a short sleeper.

“Getting at least seven hours of nightly sleep is essential to be at your mental, emotional and physical best for whatever you will pour yourself into, either at work or at home,” said American Academy of Sleep Medicine President Dr. Timothy Morgenthaler, who was not involved in the study.

Basner and colleagues Andrea M. Spaeth, PhD, and David F. Dinges, PhD, analyzed responses from 124,517 Americans 15 years and older who completed the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) between 2003 and 2011. The computer-assisted telephone interview, which is sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and conducted annually by the U.S. Census Bureau, asks participants how they spent their time between 4 a.m. on the previous day and 4 a.m. on the interview day. Responses were combined into 40 distinct activities that captured 99.1 percent of the 24-hour day. Responses combined into the “sleeping” category included napping, waking up and dreaming.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 30 percent of employed U.S. adults typically sleep 6 hours or less in a 24-hour period, which represents approximately 40.6 million workers. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults get about 7 to 9 hours of nightly sleep for optimal health, productivity and daytime alertness.

The study was supported by funding from the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) through NASA. The work was performed at the Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Department of Psychiatry, at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

What is Sleep Challenge: Calling All Sleep Specialists

 

Can you explain “what is sleep” to an 11 year old?

International contest offers a new cash prize for scientists who can explain complex science in a way that will awaken the interest of thousands of 11-year-olds

According to press reports, the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University is challenging scientists to answer an eye-opening question: What is sleep?

That is the wake-up call for scientists in this year’s edition of the Flame Challenge. In this international contest, scientists – from graduate students to senior researchers – are challenged to communicate complex science in ways that will interest and enlighten 11-year-olds, who judge the contest.

“I came up with this contest as a fun challenge for scientists to explain a complex thing like a flame in a way that would make it clear to an 11 year old,” said actor, writer and science advocate Alan Alda, a visiting professor at Stony Brook University. “The idea was to urge scientists to communicate more clearly. I didn’t realize what an extraordinary learning experience it was going to be for the 11-year-olds. By now, tens of thousands of kids from all over the world have excitedly delved into the mysteries of nature as they’ve judged the scientists’ entries.

“This year’s question — “What is sleep?” — should wake them up to a whole new understanding of that third of our lives we know so little about,” said Alda.

Besides kicking off the Flame Challenge, the multi-tasking Alda is currently appearing on Broadway in the play “Love Letters.”

Scientists have until Feb. 13, 2015 to submit their answers in writing, video or graphics. This year, for the first time, a $1,000 cash prize will go to the scientists who submit the two winning answers, one written entry and one video or graphic entry. In addition, as in past years, the winning scientists will receive a trip to New York City, where they will meet Alan Alda and be honored at the World Science Festival in May, 2015. The Flame Challenge is generously sponsored by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and the AAAS.

The entries will be screened for scientific accuracy before being judged by schoolchildren around the world. Last year, 27,000 students were registered through their schools to serve as Flame Challenge judges. The Flame Challenge began in 2011 with actor and science advocate Alan Alda’s childhood query: What is a flame? Since then, the questions have been chosen from hundreds submitted by children. In 2012, scientists wrestled with “What is time?” Last year, they took on “What is color?”

“The Flame Challenge is an ingenious competition that we proudly support,” says 2015 ACS President Diane Grob Schmidt. “It challenges scientists to explain the world around us in ways that are both understandable and engaging to children. In doing so, the Flame Challenge has ignited a bonfire of interest among children worldwide. It is truly a spark that could help inspire them to explore careers in science and find ways to address the many global challenges facing all of us.”

“This is the first Flame Challenge that asks a question about something that happens inside our brains and our bodies,” said Elizabeth Bass, director of the Alda Center. “We hope that inspires past Flame Challenge contestants to try again, and also attracts people in psychology, medicine and all the cognitive sciences. But the winners don’t necessarily have to be specialists in the topic — they mainly have to focus on understanding what 11-year-olds might know and care about.”

This year’s question, “What is sleep?” was submitted by Ms. Wohlberg’s sixth grade class from Garden City Middle School in New York. Several other students from around the country asked related questions, such as “What are dreams?” In an online poll of children about the next Flame Challenge question, “What is sleep” strongly outpolled questions about electricity, wind, germs and how scientific discoveries are made.

At the Flame Challenge website, www.FlameChallenge.org, scientists can find more information on entering the contest, and teachers can find information on having their classes participate as judges. The website also contains past winning entries and tips from past winners about how to come up with a good entry.

“The Flame Challenge is unique,” said one of last year’s winners, Melanie Golob of Olympia, WA. “It not only educates us as the scientists who answer the question, but it also gives kids the opportunity to deeply engage in a discussion on a complex scientific topic. This can be the spark that ignites a lifelong passion for science.”

Like many of the past winners, Golob is active in communicating about science to the public. Besides working for a company called Doctor Evidence, she is creating a science TV show called “Science This!” applying real science to everyday situations (or not-so-everyday situations); the website is science-this.com.

The annual Flame Challenge contest is part of the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science’s mission of helping scientists communicate more effectively with the public. Located in Stony Brook University’s School of Journalism, the Alda Center gives innovative Communicating Science courses for graduate students in the sciences, and conducts workshops around the country. Alan Alda is a founding member of the Alda Center and a Visiting Professor in the School of Journalism.

The Flame Challenge’s sponsors are both major nonprofit scientific societies. The American Chemical Society is chartered by the U.S. Congress and is a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research. ACS encourages each of its 164,000 members to speak simply about their science and its importance to all of our lives. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the world’s largest multidisciplinary scientific society and publisher of the journal Science, was founded in 1848. It includes some 261 affiliated groups, serving a total of 10 million individuals, and its mission is to “advance science and serve society.”

CONTACT: Lauren Sheprow, 631-632-4965, Lauren.Sheprow@stonybrook.edu

WHAT IS PROBLEM SLEEPINESS?

 

Sleep Facts:

* Everyone feels sleepy at times. However, when sleepiness interferes with daily routines
and activities, or reduces the ability to function, it is called “problem sleepiness.”

A person can be sleepy without realizing it.

A person may not feel sleepy during activities such as talking and listening to music at a party, but the same person can fall asleep while driving home afterward.
You may have problem sleepiness if you:

* consistently do not get enough sleep, or get poor quality sleep;
* fall asleep while driving;
* struggle to stay awake when inactive, such
as when watching television or reading;
* have difficulty paying attention or concentrating at work, school, or home;
* have performance problems at work or school;
* are often told by others that you are sleepy;
* have difficulty remembering;
* have slowed responses;
* have difficulty controlling your emotions;
or * must take naps on most days.

Courtesy of the U.S. National Institute of Health

Nearly 55 percent of U.S. infants sleep with potentially unsafe bedding

 

Unsafe Infant Bedding use Still Common, Despite Warnings Says U.S. NIH

Nearly 55 percent of U.S. infants are placed to sleep with bedding that increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS, despite recommendations against the practice, report researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other institutions.

Soft objects and loose bedding — such as thick blankets, quilts, and pillows — can obstruct an infant’s airway and pose a suffocation risk, according to the NIH’s Safe to Sleep campaign. Soft bedding has also been shown to increase the risk of SIDS Infants should be placed to sleep alone, on their backs, on a firm sleep surface, such as in a mattress in a safety-approved crib covered by a fitted sheet. Soft objects, toys, crib bumpers, quilts, comforters and loose bedding should be kept out of the baby’s sleep area.

Based on responses from nearly 20,000 caregivers, the researchers reported that, although such potentially unsafe bedding use declined from 85.9 percent in 1993-1995, it still remained high, at 54.7 percent, in 2008-2010.

“Parents have good intentions but may not understand that blankets, quilts and pillows increase a baby’s risk of SIDS and accidental suffocation.”

—Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Senior Scientist, CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health in Atlanta

“Parents have good intentions but may not understand that blankets, quilts and pillows increase a baby’s risk of SIDS and accidental suffocation,” said the study’s first author, Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, Ph.D., M.P.H., senior scientist in the CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health in Atlanta.

The current study is an analysis of data from the National Infant Sleep Position Study (NISP), which collected information on the influence of infant sleep position and other safe sleep recommendations on infant care practices. Funded by the NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the survey collected information by telephone from a random sample of more than 1,000 caregivers in U.S. households from 1992-2010.

“Parents receive a lot of mixed messages,” said study author Marian Willinger, Ph.D., special assistant for SIDS at the NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “Relatives may give them quilts or fluffy blankets as presents for the new baby, and they feel obligated to use them. Or they see magazine photos of babies with potentially unsafe bedding items. But babies should be placed for sleep on a firm, safety approved mattress and fitted sheet, without any other bedding.”

Drs. Shapiro-Mendoza and Willinger conducted the analysis with colleagues at CDC, the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, the Boston University School of Public Health and the Boston University School of Medicine. The study was published online in Pediatrics.

SIDS is the unexplained death of a child within the first year of life. In 1992, the AAP issued its recommendation that infants be put to sleep on their backs. Two years later, the NICHD and its partners launched the Back to Sleep campaign, later renamed Safe to Sleep. The rate of SIDS in the United States has fallen 50 percent since 1992. However, since 2000, the SIDS rate has declined slowly, and researchers have reported an increase in other unexpected infant deaths, resulting from such causes as accidental suffocation, entrapment in bedding material or other causes. These accidental suffocation deaths have increased from 7.0 per every 100,000 live births in 2000 to 15.9 in 2010.

As part of the survey, caregivers were asked whether infants were placed to sleep on such items as blankets, bean bag chairs, rugs, sheepskin, cushions, or pillows. Caregivers were also asked about whether the infant was covered with such bedding materials as a blanket, quilt or comforter, sheepskin, or a pillow. The Safe to Sleep campaign advises against blankets or other coverings, and recommends sleep clothing, such as a one-piece sleeper, and keeping the room at a comfortable temperature.

“Bedding use for infant sleep remains common despite recommendations against this practice,” the study authors wrote.

By 2007-2010, most respondents reported following these Safe to Sleep recommendations: placing the infant to sleep in a crib or bassinet, placing the infant on his or her back, and not sharing a sleep surface with the infant. However, use of bedding was consistently 50 percent or higher for each of these years.

From 1993-1995 to 2008-2010, covering with thick blankets declined from 56 percent to 27.4 percent and covering with quilts or comforters declined from 39.2 percent to 7.9 percent. However, the authors did not see significant declines such bedding materials placed under infants, with 25.5 percent-31.9 percent reporting placing blankets under infants and 3.1 percent-4.6 percent placing cushions under infants.

“Interestingly, we also observed a greater decline in bedding use over the infants (quilts/comforters and thick blankets) compared with bedding (blankets) under infants,” the study authors wrote. “This finding raises a concern that parents may incorrectly perceive the recommendations as only pertaining to items covering or around the infant, and not include items under the infant.”

The researchers speculate that among the reasons mothers used bedding were to provide warmth and comfort or to prevent falls from an adult bed or sofa by using pillows as a barricade. They noted that a study of images from popular magazines targeting women of childbearing age found that more than two thirds of these images showed infants sleeping with potentially hazardous bedding such as blankets and pillows.

“Seeing images such as these may reinforce beliefs and perceptions that having these items in the infant sleep area is not only a favorable practice, but also the norm,” the researchers wrote.

The authors also found that caregivers of Hispanic and African-American infants were more likely to use potentially hazardous bedding compared to caregivers of white infants. In addition, younger mothers were more likely to use this bedding than were older mothers, as were non-college educated mothers compared to college-educated mothers.

About the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD): The NICHD sponsors research on development, before and after birth; maternal, child, and family health; reproductive biology and population issues; and medical rehabilitation. For more information, visit the Institute’s website at http://www.nichd.nih.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

Sleepless in America

 

Sleepless in America on the U.S. National Geographic Channel November 30, 2014

In an unprecedented partnership, the U.S.National Geographic Channel along with the Public Good Projects and the U.S. National Institute of Health, America’s foremost scientific authority, will draw the nation’s attention to the science of sleep — a topic fundamental to our collective well-being.

Check out the trailer Sleepless in America

What: ‘Sleepless in America’
Where: Network Channel
Date: Sunday at 8 p.m.

U.S. Teens 10 x More to Abuse Sleep Medication Says Study

 

Sleep Study and Sleep Medications in the News

“The medical community may be inadvertently creating a new generation of illegal, recreational drug users by prescribing anti-anxiety or sleep medications to teenagers”, say U.S. University of Michigan researchers.

According to press reports the key findings include:

*Those prescribed anxiety or sleep medications during the study period were 10 times more likely to abuse them within two years, to get high or to experiment, than teens without prescriptions.
*White students were twice as likely as black students to use others’ medications, and females older than 15 and teens who had prescriptions for longer periods of time were more likely to abuse the medications.

The University of Michigan website reflects that “It’s the first longitudinal study to determine whether teens’ recent medical use of anxiety or sleep medications is associated with later taking somebody else’s prescription medication illegally, either for self-treatment or recreational use.”
The study, “A prospective study of adolescents’ nonmedical use of anxiolytic and sleep medication,” appears in the American Psychological Association journal Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.

How Much Sleep Do We Need?

 

The amount of sleep each person needs depends on many factors, including age. Infants generally require about 16 hours a day, while teenagers need about 9 hours on average. For most adults, 7 to 8 hours a night appears to be the best amount of sleep. Women in the first 3 months of pregnancy often need several more hours of sleep than usual. The amount of sleep a person needs also increases if he or she has been deprived of sleep in previous days. Getting too little sleep creates a “sleep debt,” which is much like being overdrawn at a bank. Eventually, your body will demand that the debt be repaid. We don’t seem to adapt to getting less sleep than we need; while we may get used to a sleep-depriving schedule, our judgment, reaction time, and other functions are still impaired.

People tend to sleep more lightly and for shorter time spans as they get older, although they generally need about the same amount of sleep as they needed in early adulthood. About half of all people over 65 have frequent sleeping problems, such as insomnia, and deep sleep stages in many elderly people often become very short or stop completely. This change may be a normal part of aging, or it may result from medical problems that are common in elderly people and from the medications and other treatments for those problems.

Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day, even during boring activities, you haven’t had enough sleep. If you routinely fall asleep within 5 minutes of lying down, you probably have severe sleep deprivation, possibly even a sleep disorder. Microsleeps, or very brief episodes of sleep in an otherwise awake person, are another mark of sleep deprivation. In many cases, people are not aware that they are experiencing microsleeps. The widespread practice of “burning the candle at both ends” in western industrialized societies has created so much sleep deprivation that what is really abnormal sleepiness is now almost the norm.

Many studies make it clear that sleep deprivation is dangerous. Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated. Sleep deprivation also magnifies alcohol’s effects on the body, so a fatigued person who drinks will become much more impaired than someone who is well-rested. Driver fatigue is responsible for an estimated 100,000 motor vehicle accidents and 1500 deaths each year, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Since drowsiness is the brain’s last step before falling asleep, driving while drowsy can – and often does – lead to disaster. Caffeine and other stimulants cannot overcome the effects of severe sleep deprivation. The National Sleep Foundation says that if you have trouble keeping your eyes focused, if you can’t stop yawning, or if you can’t remember driving the last few miles, you are probably too drowsy to drive safely.

Insufficient Sleep Is a Public Health Epidemic

 

Sleep is increasingly recognized as important to public health, with sleep insufficiency linked to motor vehicle crashes, industrial disasters, and medical and other occupational errors.

What you Need to Know (Part 1 in a Series):

* Unintentionally falling asleep, nodding off while driving, and having difficulty performing daily tasks because of sleepiness all may contribute to these hazardous outcomes.
* Persons experiencing sleep insufficiency are also more likely to suffer from chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, and obesity, as well as from cancer, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life and productivity.
* Sleep insufficiency may be caused by broad scale societal factors such as round-the-clock access to technology and work schedules, but sleep disorders such as insomnia or obstructive sleep apnea also play an important role.
* An estimated 50-70 million adults have sleep or wakefulness disorder in the U.S. alone according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
* Notably, snoring is a major indicator of obstructive sleep apnea.

In recognition of the importance of sleep to the nation’s health, CDC surveillance of sleep-related behaviors has increased in recent years. Additionally, the U.S. Based Institute of Medicine encouraged collaboration between CDC and the U.S. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research to support development and expansion of adequate surveillance of the U.S. population’s sleep patterns and associated outcomes. Two new reports on the prevalence of unhealthy sleep behaviors and self-reported sleep-related difficulties among U.S. adults provide further evidence that insufficient sleep is an important public health concern.
Sleep-Related Unhealthy Behaviors

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey included a core question regarding perceived insufficient rest or sleep in 2008 (included since 1995 on the Health Related Quality of Life module) and an optional module of four questions on sleep behavior in 2009. Data from the 2009 BRFSS Sleep module were used to assess the prevalence of unhealthy/sleep behaviors by selected sociodemographic factors and geographic variations in 12 states. The analysis[PDF – 1.1MB], determined that, among 74,571 adult respondents in 12 states, 35.3% reported <7 hours of sleep during a typical 24-hour period, 48.0% reported snoring, 37.9% reported unintentionally falling asleep during the day at least once in the preceding month, and 4.7% reported nodding off or falling asleep while driving at least once in the preceding month. This is the first CDC surveillance report to include estimates of drowsy driving and unintentionally falling asleep during the day. The U.S. National Department of Transportation estimates drowsy driving to be responsible for 1,550 fatalities and 40,000 nonfatal injuries annually in the United States.

Sleep and Bulllying Linked Says Study

 

Kids Who Bully, Have Aggressive Behaviors Are Twice as Likely to Have Sleep Problems, U-M Study Says

Researchers found urban schoolchildren with behaviors like bullying more likely to have sleep-disordered breathing or daytime sleepiness

Children who are bullies or have conduct problems at school are more likely to be sleepy during the day according to University of Michigan Medical School researchers.

Researchers looked at elementary school students in the Ypsilanti, Michigan, public schools who had exhibited conduct problems like bullying or discipline referrals and found that there was a two-fold higher risk for symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, particularly daytime sleepiness among these students. The study was published last week in the journal Sleep Medicine.

“What this study does is raise the possibility that poor sleep, from whatever cause, can indeed play into bullying or other aggressive behaviors – a major problem that many schools are trying to address,” says Louise O’Brien, Ph.D., assistant professor in U-M’s Sleep Disorders Center and the departments of Neurology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

“Our schools do push the importance of healthy eating and exercise, but this study highlights that good sleep is just as essential to a healthy lifestyle.”

O’Brien said the study showed that sleepiness seemed to be the biggest driver of the behavior problems, not the snoring, which is often a more obvious symptom associated with sleep-disordered breathing.

Sleep-disordered breathing is an umbrella term for a spectrum of breathing problems during sleep, which range from habitual snoring to obstructive sleep apnea, where the airway collapses at night.

The sleepiness experienced by the children in the study could be caused by sleep-disordered breathing, but also by many other factors like chaotic home environments, fragmented sleep or not enough sleep because of too much electronic stimulus from televisions, cell phones or computers in the bedroom, says O’Brien, who is on the faculty of U-M’s Sleep Disorders Center.

O’Brien says that a longitudinal study is needed. Although there are other reasons for these behaviors, if sleepiness does contribute to aggressive behavior as this study suggests, a significant proportion of bullying in children might be eliminated by efforts to reduce children’s daytime sleepiness.

“We know that the pre-frontal cortex area of the brain is sensitive to sleep deprivation, and this area is also related to emotional control, decision making and social behavior,” says O’Brien.

“So impairment in the prefrontal cortex may lead to aggression or disruptive behavior, delinquency or even substance abuse. But the good news is that some of these behaviors can be improved. Sleep-disordered breathing can be treated, and schools or parents can encourage kids to get more sleep.”

O’Brien recommends parents remove electronic devices from bedrooms, make getting enough sleep a priority and encourage children to sleep for the recommended amount of time without interruption. It is recommended that children in pre-school sleep between 11-13 hours a night, and school-aged children between 10-11 hours of sleep a night.

“Given the high prevalence of aggressive, bullying and disruptive behaviors in schools and the long-lasting consequences for both perpetrators and victims, more study on this issue is needed,” she says.

Additional authors: From the University of Michigan: Neali H. Lucas, Ph.D., Barbara T. Felt, M.D., Timothy F. Hoban, M.D., Deborah I. Ruzicka, R.N., Ph.D., Kenneth Guire, M.S., Ronald D. Chervin, M.D., M.S.. From the Ypsilanti Public Schools: Ruth Jordan.

Journal reference: Sleep Med (2011), doi:10,1016/j.sleep.2010.11.012

The University of Michigan Medical School Clinical Research Program funded this study. U-M consistently ranks among the nation’s top five research universities. There are many, many opportunities for the public to engage in clinical research studies at U-M. Log in at www.umclinicalstudies.org to get started.

About the U-M Sleep Disorders Center: The University of Michigan Sleep Disorders Center diagnoses and treats patients who have problems with their sleep or level of alertness. The Center is among the largest academic facilities of its kind in the country and includes several parts: a number of general and more specialized Sleep Disorders Clinics; the Michael S. Aldrich Sleep Disorders Laboratory; the University of Michigan Sleep Disorders Laboratory – South State Street; active training programs; and productive research projects.

About the University of Michigan Medical School: The School, which opened its doors in 1850, is consistently ranked among the top Medical Schools in the nation. Our 19 clinical and six basic science departments are committed to a single mission: to educate students, physicians and biomedical scholars and to provide a spectrum of comprehensive knowledge, research, patient care and service of the highest quality to the people of the state of Michigan and beyond.

SOURCE University of Michigan Medical School
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Eighty percent of Chinese students sleep-deprived: report – Xinhua

 

Beijing, May 30 (IANS) About 80 percent of primary and middle school students in China are not getting enough sleep, according to a report released Monday.

According to press reports by the manalorean The study by the China Youth and Children Research Centre says the average sleeping time for elementary and middle school students was less than eight hours, even on weekends, Xinhua reported.

The study was based on reactions from more than 5,000 students in 10 provinces. It was conducted in 1999, 2005 and 2010.

“Heavy workload, poor study habits and long commuting times all contribute to the sleep shortage,” said Deng Xiquan, a scholar with the research centre.